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What is the DES Algorithm? Understanding Data Encryption Standard

Let us take a look at the topics that are going to be discussed in this blog:

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What is DES Algorithm?

The DES Algorithm is a block cipher. It uses symmetric keys to convert 64-bit plaintext blocks into 48-bit ciphertext blocks. The DES Algorithm was developed by the IBM team in the 1970s. It has since been accepted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NSIT).

The DES encryption algorithm uses symmetric keys, which means that the same key is used for encrypting and decrypting the data.

Triple DES Algorithm

Triple DES is a block cipher that applies the DES algorithm thrice. It usually uses three different keys—k1, k2, and k3. The first key, k1, is used to encrypt, the second key, k2, is used to decrypt, and the third key, k3, is used to encrypt again.

The triple DES also has a variant that uses only two keys, where k1 and k3 are the same.

DES Algorithm Steps

Let us take a look at the steps involved in the DES algorithm:

broad level steps in des

In the encryption process (step 4), there are five stages:

In the decryption process, the same algorithm is used with the order of the 16 keys reversed.

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DES Modes of Operation

The following are the different DES modes of operation to choose from:

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DES Algorithm Implementation

You need a security provider to implement the DES algorithm. There are many providers that are available in the market, and it is crucial to select one as the first step of the implementation process. The provider you select will depend on the language being used by you. This can be MATLAB, C, Python, or Java.

Once you have selected the provider, you have to decide how the key is going to be generated. You can have the key randomly generated by the key generator or you can create a key on your own. You can use either plaintext or a byte array for this purpose.

It is crucial to test the encryption so you can be assured of its proper implementation.

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Applications of DES Algorithm

The DES algorithm is used whenever a not-very-strong encryption is needed. It can be used in random number generators or even as a permutation generator. One of the most important practical applications of the DES algorithm is to create triple DES legacy systems with three keys.

Difference Between AES and DES Algorithms

AES and DES are both symmetric ciphers. So, what is the difference between them? Let us find out.

Parameter AES DES
Meaning AES stands for advanced encryption standard. DES stands for data encryption standard.
Key Length The key length can be 128 bits, 192 bits, or 256 bits. The key length is 56 bits.
Rounds of Operations The rounds of operations per key length are as follows: 128 bits: 10 192 bits: 12 256 bits: 14 There are 16 identical rounds of operations.
Network AES is based on a substitution and permutation network. DES is based on the Feistel network.
Security AES is considered the standard encryption algorithm in the world and is more secure than DES. DES is considered to be a weak encryption algorithm; triple DES is a more secure encryption algorithm.
Rounds Key Addition, Mix Column, Byte Substitution, and Shift Row. Substitution, XOR Operation, Permutation, and Expansion.
Size AES can encrypt plaintext of 128 bits. DES can encrypt plaintext of 64 bits.
Derived from AES was derived from the Square Cipher. DES was derived from the Lucifer Cipher.
Designed by AES was designed by Vincent Rijmen and Joan Daemen. DES was designed by IBM.
Known Attacks There are no known attacks for AES. Brute force attacks, differential cryptanalysis, and linear cryptanalysis.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of DES Algorithm

Let us take a look at the advantages and disadvantages of the DES Algorithm.

Advantages of DES Algorithm

The advantages are as follows:

Disadvantages of DES Algorithm

The disadvantages are as follows:

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DES is a symmetric block cipher that can be used to encrypt 64-bits of plaintext into 64-bits of ciphertext. The algorithm is the same for the process of encryption as well as decryption. The only difference is that the decryption procedure is the opposite of the encryption procedure. The algorithm goes through 16 rounds and makes it stronger. Now, even though there are much stronger encryption algorithms available, learning about DES is still important as it helped in the advancement of cryptography as we know it today.

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The post What is the DES Algorithm? Understanding Data Encryption Standard appeared first on Intellipaat Blog.

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