What is Electric Vehicle?
- Indian Industry is observing a wave of Electric Vehicles. We are the 5th largest Automobile Industry in the world and are ready to conquer more by 2030.
- India is ranked 13th among the 20 most polluted cities in the world. To change this, we must make use of electric vehicles
- Electric vehicles are environmentally friendly. They don’t release harmful gases or smoke into the air, which helps to reduce pollution and fight global warming.
The topics to be coated in this blog are:
- What is an Electric Vehicle?
- History of Electric Vehicles
- Types of Electric Vehicle
- Components of an Electric Vehicle
- How does an Electric Vehicle Work?
- Features of Electric Vehicle
- Advantages of Electric Vehicle
- Disadvantages of Electric Vehicles
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It’s time to break the ice and get to know everything about Electric Vehicles..
What is an Electric Vehicle?
- A car that is powered by electricity is referred to as an “electric vehicle,” and this definition is much broader than you might imagine.
- The term “EV” refers to an electric vehicle. EVs are automobiles that run entirely or primarily on electricity.
- A fully electric vehicle is one without a gasoline or diesel engine. When you put an electric car in ‘drive,’ it accelerates just like an automatic vehicle. Electric and hybrid vehicles lack gears.
- They power an electric motor, which rotates the wheels, by storing the electricity in a rechargeable battery.
- Electricity or renewable energy is used to power electric vehicles. They don’t produce any emissions or exhale any dangerous gases. As a result, they are environmentally friendly vehicles that contribute to the reduction of ever-increasing air pollution.
- Electric cars have low operating costs because they have fewer moving parts to repair, and they are also extremely environmentally friendly because they use little or no fossil fuels (petrol or diesel).
- Even though some EVs use lead acid or nickel metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries are now thought to be the standard for contemporary battery electric cars because of their superior durability and exceptional ability to store energy, with a self-discharge rate of just 5 percent.
- Compared to an ICE vehicle, an electric vehicle is approximately 3 times more efficient. Using less energy to power your vehicle also helps to reduce costs.
History of Electric Vehicle
- Surprisingly, Electric vehicles are not a new invention. To your astonishment Electric vehicle has a long history of development that dates back over a century and continues today.
- It is not known to many; that there were more Electric Vehicles on the road than gasoline at the beginning of the 20th Century. However, when Ford’s moving production line made passenger cars more attainable, this presence was challenged.
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- When was the first Electric Vehicle made?
Inventors in Hungary, the Netherlands, the UK, and the US began concentrating their efforts on fusing technological advancements to produce a powered motor vehicle as early as the 1830s. Although this is debatable, many believe the first small-scale electric cars were developed between 1828 and 1832.
- Who created the first electric vehicle?
- A British inventor name Robert Anderson is said to have displayed the first electric vehicle at an industry conference in 1835. The wheels of Robert Anderson’s car were turned by a disposable battery that was fuelled by crude oil.
- Anderson wasn’t the only one who was interested in electric mobility. Both Dutch professor Sibrandus Stratingh and Hungarian scientist Nyos Jedlik developed model electric cars in the same period.
- On the other hand, Thomas Davenport, an American blacksmith-turned-inventor, is also credited with creating essential parts of the electric motor that gave rise to the first electric car on the other side of the Atlantic.
- So, What was the first electric vehicle, and how did it look?
William Morrison, a chemist from Des Moines, Iowa, created the first “practical” electric vehicle in the US. Morrison’s car was a traditional horse-drawn Surrey carriage that was popular in America in the 19th century and had been modified to accommodate a battery. With a top speed of 32 km/h (20 mph), Morrison’s electric carriage could accommodate a maximum of 12 passengers.
So, what did it look like??
Like this? Umm.. probably not!
This is what the First Ever Electric Vehicle looked like.. Astonishing, right?
Although his car was barely not more than an electrified wagon, it stimulated people’s interest in electric cars.
The revolution of Electric Vehicles started revolving in the early 1900s itself, let’s see how!!
- It was in 1901, that numerous inventors were observing the enormous demand for electric cars and were working towards advancing the technology. Thomas Edison, for instance, attempted to create a better battery because he thought electric cars were the best mode of transportation.
- Around the turn of the century, between 1908 and 1912, electric vehicles gained popularity in the US.
- 1968-1973: As gasoline became more affordable and widely available and as internal combustion engines continued to advance, the demand for alternative fuel vehicles fell over the ensuing 50 years.
- 1973: Both big and small automakers started looking into the potential of alternative fuel vehicles. An urban electric vehicle prototype, for instance, was developed by General Motors and displayed at the 1973 First Symposium on Low Pollution Power Systems Development.
- Between 1974 and 1983, Sebring-CitiCar vanguard was a popular electric car. The company produces more than 2,000 CitiCars, which are 50–60 mile small cars with a wedge-like shape. Due to its popularity, Sebring-Vanguard rose to become the sixth largest car manufacturer in the United States by 1975.
Now that we have discussed the history of Electric Vehicles, let us now classify them.
Types of Electric Vehicles
To meet various driving requirements, there are three different types of electric vehicles. They come in three varieties: all-electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and fuel cell electric.
- All-Electric Vehicles
Instead of using gasoline, all-electric vehicles (also known as EVs or BEVs) have a sizable battery that powers one or more electric motors. As new models are released, all-electric vehicle ranges increase from 80 to more than 300 miles. When compared to gas-powered vehicles, all-electric vehicles require less maintenance (such as oil changes, smog checks, spark plug changes, and replacing a catalytic converter or other parts that wear out and break down).
- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) provide both gas-only and electric-only driving—even at relatively high speeds. Plug-in hybrids can travel 20 to 55 miles on electricity alone and emit no emissions while doing so, and they do so with smaller batteries than battery electric vehicles. When the car’s electric range is exhausted, it switches to gas and continues to operate as a typical car would.
- Electric vehicles with fuel cells
All-electric or plug-in hybrid vehicles use electricity to power their engines, but fuel cell electric vehicles (also known as FCEVs) use electricity differently. Its power system is made up of a stack of numerous cells that chemically combine hydrogen gas from the car’s tank and airborne oxygen to create electricity.
Fuel cells have a driving range of 300–400 miles on a single tank and can be refueled at hydrogen fueling stations, which are more prevalent in California. This process takes about five minutes.
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Working Principles of Different Electrical Vehicles
We will be discussing the principles on which every EV moves, let’s begin with:
- Working Principles of BEV
For the electric motor, power is converted from the DC battery to AC.
The accelerator pedal sends a signal to the controller, which changes the frequency of the AC power from the inverter to the motor to adjust the vehicle’s speed.
The motor is coupled to and rotates the wheels through a cog.
When the brakes are applied or the electric vehicle is decelerating, the motor transforms into an alternator and generates power, which is then returned to the battery.
- Working Principles of HEV
It has a fuel tank similar to a regular car that supplies gas to the engine.
A set of batteries powering an electric motor is also present.
The transmission can be turned by both the engine and the electric motor at the same time.
- Working Principles of PHEV
PHEVs typically start in electric-only mode and continue to run on electricity until their battery pack runs out. At highway cruising speed, which is typically greater than 60 or 70 miles per hour, some models switch to hybrid mode. When the battery is completely depleted, the engine takes over and the car starts to function like a regular, non-plug-in hybrid.
Components of an Electric Vehicle
- Battery (all-electric auxiliary):
The auxiliary battery powers the vehicle’s accessories when it has an electric drive.
- Charge port:
To charge the traction battery pack, the vehicle can attach to a charging cable using the charge port.
- DC/DC converter:
The DC/DC converter, which is used to operate the vehicle’s accessories and recharge the auxiliary battery, converts higher-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack into lower-voltage DC power.
- Electric traction motor:
The wheels of the vehicle are propelled by an electric traction motor, which draws energy from the traction battery pack.Motor generators that are both drives and regenerators are used by some automobiles.
The traction battery is charged using the onboard charger, which transforms incoming AC power from the charge port into DC power.
- Onboard charger
To charge the traction battery, the onboard charger converts incoming AC power from the charge port to DC power.
Additionally, while the pack is being charged, it keeps track of battery characteristics like the voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge by communicating with the charging apparatus.
- Power electronics controller:
Controlling the electric traction motor’s speed and torque, the power electronics controller regulates the flow of electrical energy supplied by the traction battery.
- Thermal system (cooling):
This system maintains a safe operating temperature range for the engine, electric motor, power electronics, and other parts.
- Traction battery pack:
Electricity is stored in the traction battery pack, which the traction motor will use.
- Electric Transmission:
The electric traction motor drives the wheels by transferring mechanical energy through the transmission.
How does an Electric Vehicle Work?
- The idea behind how electric cars operate is that electric energy is converted into mechanical energy, which is then used to create kinetic energy and permit motion in a vehicle.
- Instead of a traditional internal combustion engine, EVs have an electric motor. Thus, conventional fuel (petrol/diesel) is replaced by electric energy. Electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy by electric motors.
- EVs function like automatic vehicles. Both forward and reverse are options. When an electric car is put into “drive,” it accelerates similarly to an automatic vehicle.
- For the electric motor, power is converted from the DC battery to AC.
- The controller receives a signal from the accelerator pedal and changes the frequency of the AC power from the inverter to the motor to change the speed of the vehicle.
How does the electrical motor in a car operate?
- Motor generators that are both drives and regenerators are used by some automobiles.
- An electric vehicle can access the grid by plugging into a charging station.
- They store the electricity in rechargeable batteries and use them to power an electric motor that turns the wheels.
- Electric cars feel lighter to drive because they accelerate more quickly than cars with conventional fuel engines.
How is charging carried out?
- An electric vehicle can be charged by connecting it to a home charger or a public charging station.
- To keep your device fully charged while you’re out and about, there are many charging stations available throughout the UK.
- But to get the best deal for home charging, it’s crucial to get the right EV electricity tariff, so you can spend less money charging and save more on your electric bill.
Features of Electric Cars
Electric vehicles are exciting, economical, quiet, and comfortable. Due to the electric motor’s smaller size compared to an internal combustion engine, interior spaces are spacious, and driving is quiet. There is no need to grind gears because torque, or pulling power, is available instantly. Top speeds also exceed legal limits. All electric vehicles are automatic and feature the amenities we expect in high-end vehicles.
Additional desirable features found in many electric car models include touchscreens, high-resolution intelligent displays, automatic wipers, and lights, automatic 30-minute rapid charging, park assist cameras, quirky designs, and environmentally friendly parts.
- Low Cost of Maintenance
Because they have fewer moving parts than internal combustion vehicles, electric cars require very little maintenance. Compared to conventional petrol or diesel vehicles, electric vehicles require less maintenance. They store the electricity in rechargeable batteries and use them to power an electric motor that turns the wheels.
As a result, the annual cost of operating an electric vehicle is very low.
Electric vehicles are quieter than conventional vehicles because of their lower noise emissions.
- Electric cars are simple to operate and quiet.
Electric cars are very convenient to drive and don’t have gears. Only the accelerator, brake, and steering are controlled. Simply plug your vehicle into a home or public charger to charge it. Electric vehicles are quieter than conventional vehicles because of their lower noise emissions.
- Free of Noise Pollution
As there is no engine under the hood, electric vehicles can operate in silence. A silent vehicle has no engine. The electric motor operates so quietly that you have to look into your instrument panel to see if it is turned on. To make electric vehicles safe for pedestrians because they are so silent, manufacturers have to add fake sounds to them.
Although the benefits have become abundantly clear, there are some drawbacks that each person should take into account before deciding to make an electric car their next significant investment. These factors include:
- Recharge Stations
The development of electric fueling stations is still in its early stages. If you’re on a long trip or decide to visit family in a rural or suburban area and run out of charge, it might be harder to find a charging station. This is because not many places you visit daily will have electric fueling stations for your vehicle. You may be stranded.
- Energy Isn’t Free
If you don’t carefully weigh your options, electric cars may also be an inconvenience for your energy bill. If you haven’t done your homework on the electric vehicle you want to buy, you might be making a bad investment.
- Extended Recharge Period
While filling up your gasoline-powered car only takes a few minutes, fully charging an electric vehicle can take up to a day.
- Typically 2 seats
The majority of electric vehicles on the market today are small and only seat two people. They are not intended for the whole family, and adding a third person can make the trip a little uncomfortable for the other two travelers.
The era of electric vehicles has arrived! The manufacturing businesses are working harder to switch from conventional to electric vehicles. Owning an electric car with the proper infrastructure and functionality has a lot of advantages. With so many benefits, this year might be the time to buy a battery-powered car. Consider going electric!
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