Business Management Enterprise Architecture (EA) Presentations Process Management

EDOC2013

Description

Keynote presentation at EDOC 2013

Transcript

© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Keith D Swenson
Sept 2013
System architect intuition:
the effect on the design of their system
to support the work
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
The working world is
changing.
From making
things …
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
… to knowing
things.
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
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Where To?
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Knowledge workers
… high degree of expertise,
… involves the creation, distribution,
or application of knowledge.
– Thomas Davenport
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Knowledge worker productivity
is the biggest of the
21st century management challenges.
In the developed countries
it is their first
survival
requirement.
– Peter F Drucker
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
By a number of estimates,
• intellectual property,
• brand value,
• process know-how, and
• other manifestations of brain power
generated more than 70% of all US
market value created over the past
three decades.
– “The Productivity Imperative”, McKinsey and Company
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
~1995
Routine
Work
Knowledge
Work
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
~2015
Routine
Work
Knowledge
Work
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
85% of the new jobs created in the
past decade required complex
knowledge skills:
• analyzing information,
• problem solving,
• rendering judgment and
• thinking creatively.
– “The Productivity Imperative”, McKinsey and Company
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
We know what
fragility is.
But what is
the opposite?
Fragile
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
?
Fragile Robust
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Fragile Robust Antifragile
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Muscles
are
Adaptive
The Body is
Antifragile
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Learning is Adaptive
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
IT System PerfectionIT System Perfection
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Enlightenment Bias:
– Sub-parts of a complex system
are separately understood
– A stable system is made from
very hard & durable sub-parts.
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
“The System”
Your
Organization
IT
System
&
People
Offices
Agreements
Skills
Expertise
Relationships
Hardware
Software
Data
Desire to
optimize
the entire
system
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
“The only sustainable competitive
advantage is an organization’s
ability to learn faster than the
competition.”
– Peter M. Senge,
The Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of The Learning Organization
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
“Stability is a Time Bomb”
– Nassim Nicholas Taleb, Antifragile
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Protected Exposed
Craving Stress (Exercise)
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Forests are Adaptive
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Monocultures are Fragile
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Enforcing a single best
practice on the organization,
can make it … fragile
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Process Technology Spectrum
Copyright 2013 Fujitsu America, Inc. All rights
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
ApplicationDev
Email,Texting,
Twitter,Telephone
Variable, UniquePredictable, Repeatable
NotesDocuments
& Unstructured
Data
Databases &
Structured
Data
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
ApplicationDev
Email,Texting,
Twitter,Telephone
Variable, UniquePredictable, Repeatable
NotesDocuments
& Unstructured
Data
Databases &
Structured
Data
Development Investment
High Low
End User Effort
Low High
Cost to Modify
High Low
Control of Process
High Low
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
ApplicationDev
Process
Technology
Email,Texting,
Twitter,Telephone
Variable, UniquePredictable, Repeatable
NotesDocuments
& Unstructured
Data
Databases &
Structured
Data
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
ApplicationDev
PDSIntegration
HumanPM
ProductionCM
AdaptiveCM
SocialBiz
Email,Texting,
Twitter,Telephone
Variable, UniquePredictable, Repeatable
NotesDocuments
& Unstructured
Data
Databases &
Structured
Data
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
ApplicationDev
PDSIntegration
HumanPM
PCM
ACM
SBS
Email,Texting,
Twitter,Telephone
ProductionCM
AdaptiveCM
Scripted and
Enforced
Process
Little or
No Defined
Process
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
PDSI & HPM ACMPCM
Highly Repeatable
Routine Processes
Factory, Mass Production
Small savings on each of
a large volume produced
Efficiency and cutting
costs through automation
Unpredictable
Unique Processes
Skill, Professional
Providing unique high
value to customers
Custom work
appropriate to case
User chooses
course thru
fixed path
User can change
the path while
executing
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
State of the Art in Case Management
Developed originally for AIIM for
their case management series.
Send request to:
casemgmt@kswenson.oib.com
To receive a PDF
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Examples
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Workflow Management Coalition
• Standards
• Books
• Awards
• Information
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Three years running.
Real-life use cases.
Experience with ACM.
2014 awards submissions
expected in January.
http://AdaptiveCaseManagement.org/
Workflow Management Coalition
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
 Norwegian Food Safety Authority
submitted by Computas AS
The Norwegian Food Safety Authority’s (NFSA) overall objective is to ensure safe
food and animal welfare. NFSA’s area of responsibility comprises plant health,
food and fodder production and handling, water supply plants, cosmetics, animal
health and welfare for production animals and pets. Since 2009, about 1000 of
NFSA’s knowledge workers (veterinarians, biologists, engineers, other
professionals) use MATS actively as a decision support system for the main bulk
of their professional work; to plan, conduct and register audits. The public
(farmers, restaurants, food production plants, food shops, fish exporters, plants
importers, butcheries, pet owners) use MATS to register, apply, and view their
own case information, resulting in 150 000 communications per year. Each
establishment or person, NFSA client, is viewed as a case, having a
corresponding work folder in MATS. Each case is followed by NFSA over a
possible time span of many years, subjected to both planned and event driven
control activities (inspection, audit, sampling and document control). MATS
provides focus on task support rather than workflow support.
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Task Composition
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Example of UI
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Category: Legal and Courts
 National Courts Administration of Norway
nominated by Computas AS
Olav Berg Aasen – Deputy Director General
Astrid Irene Eggen – Senior Advisor
Endre Helgesen Skjetne – Senior Advisor
.
Situation
• Case handling and court management for all 1st and 2nd instance
courts
• High-quality uniform case handling in accordance with procedural law
• Improve service-level for parties / actors / public
• Improve efficiency and effectiveness of the Norwegian courts
• Improve integration with other judicial actors
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
LOVISA Case Study
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Category: Construction and Big Projects
 Directorate for the Construction of Facilities for Euro
2012 nominated by PayDox Business Software
Preparations for the 2012 UEFA
European Football Championship
«EURO-2012» required implementation
of large-scale projects in the construction
and renovation of stadiums.
Situation
• Ukrainian State Enterprise «Directorate for the construction of facilities for
EURO 2012» was specifically established to manage construction of sports
facilities. This organization became the General Customer of the project
management system
• 272 users on 20 projects (stadiums or other construction projects).
• Dramatic reduction of the number of overdue assignments and documents
(from 80-100 per user to 10-15 per user)
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
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Qualities To Look For In
Case Management
How this differs from workflow-style processes.
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
“No plan survives contact
with the enemy.”
– Helmuth von Moltke the Elder
“Planning is essential,
plans are worthless.”
– Dwight D. Eisenhower.
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
“Often there is ―lock in‖ or
―capture‖ of a certain project
concept at an early stage,
leaving analysis of alternatives
weak or absent [from the
plan]”
– Bent Flyvbjerg, Survival of the Unfittest
The Planning Fallacy
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Roger Martin
Dean of the
Rotman
School of
Management,
University of
Toronto
Eliminate sources of variation. Find the one
true way, and get everyone to master it. If
possible, automate those practices to
increase repeatability. Mastery requires
control of the situation.
Mastery without originality becomes rote. The
master who never tries to think in novel ways …
will produce the same kind of resolution even if
the context demands something different.
Mastery without originality becomes a cul-de-sac.
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Marcus Buckingham
Author of
“First, Break
all the Rules:
What the
World’s
Greatest
Managers Do
Differently”
A manager should find the best expert on the
subject, and devise the most comprehensive
and detailed plan. Design once, execute
many times. Train people and measure them
against these consistent goals.
The true genius of a great manager is his or her
ability to individualize.
A great manager is one who understands how to
trip each person’s trigger.
Your strongest life is built through a continuous
practice of designing moment by moment.
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
I don’t know where we should take this company,
but I do know that if I start with the right people, and
engage them in vigorous debate, we will find a way
to make this company great.
Companies have to be very schizophrenic. On one
hand, they have to maintain continuity of strategy.
But they also have to be good at continuously
improving. — Change brings Opportunities.
If a majority of the people on a team already know
each other, team can become stale & predictable.
It’s often through the unexpected insights of new
colleagues that innovation is sparked.
Jim Collins
Michael E. Porter
Lynda Gratton
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Innovation
refers to the
introduction of
novel ideas or
methods.
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Medical Emergency
This patient has a
combination of
symptoms that
requires us to do
something that
has never been
tried before!
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
I’m sorry
Dr. House,
I can’t allow
you to do that.
It would make
the process
invalid.
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Design Time
(Analyst)
Run Time
(User)
Routine Work Expert
x1
Less Expert
x100 or x1000
Knowledge Work Expert
x1
?
What does it mean to “assure the correctness” of the knowledge work process?
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
A knowledge worker is
“… someone who knows
more about his or her job
than anyone else in the
organization.”
– Peter F Drucker
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Enforcement:
Guardrails (on a road) prevent
deviation, but also prevent
anything not predicted.
Guidance:
Guidelines (on a road) show people
where to go, but do not prevent
deviations if they are necessary.
Enforcement vs. Guidance
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Knowledge Worker Autonomy
 SIX major factors determine knowledge-worker productivity
 Knowledge worker productivity demands that we ask the question: “What is the task?“
 It demands that we impose the responsibility for their productivity on the individual
knowledge workers themselves. Knowledge workers have to manage themselves.
They have to have autonomy.
 Continuing innovation has to be part of the work, the task, and the responsibility of
knowledge workers.
 Knowledge work requires continuous learning on the part of the knowledge worker,
but equally continuous teaching on the part of the knowledge worker.
 Productivity of the knowledge worker is not primarily a matter of the quantity of
output. Quality is at least as important.
 Finally, knowledge-worker productivity requires that the knowledge worker is both
seen and treated as an “asset” rather than a “cost.” It requires that knowledge
workers want to work for the organization in preference to all other opportunities.
-Peter Drucker, “Management Challenges for the 21st Century” (p142)
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Created ahead of time
by specialist crafted to
automatically respond
to many situations.
Created when needed,
by the person doing the work.
Manually adjusted for
changing situations.
For Routine Work For Knowledge Work
Diagrams vs. Checklists
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
http://social-biz.org/2011/08/30/living-with-complexity/
In an unpredictable world,
the best investments
are those that minimize
the importance of predictions.
– Sargut & McGrath
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Summary
Knowledge workers are important,
and increasing
Organizations are antifragile, not like machines
Organizations need exercise, not protection
Spectrum of different types of process support
Examples from the ACM awards
Need to support innovation
Qualities of an ACM system
What has this to do with architect intuition?
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
The first principle is that
you must not fool yourself
— and you are the easiest
person to fool.
~ Richard Feynman
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
“Nature loves small error, humans
don‖t — hence when you rely on
human judgment you are at the
mercy of a mental bias that
disfavors antifragility.”
– Nassim Nicholas Taleb, Antifragile
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
”A military force has
no constant formation,
water has no constant
shape:
the ability to gain victory by
changing and adapting according to
the opponent is called genius”
– Sun Tzu, The Art of War
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
“The future is uncertain –
but this uncertainty is at
the very heart of human
creativity”
– Ilya Prigogine
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu
Q & A
Adaptive Case
Management is
for Knowledge Workers
with Unpredictable Process
to Adapt & Innovate
with Teams of Experts
to Accomplish Goals.
Slides: http://www.slideshare.net/kswenson/edoc2013
© Copyright 2013 Fujitsu

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