Business Management Presentations Process Management Process Modeling

Business Process Design and Re-engineering


Lecture slides by Mustafa Jarrar at Birzeit University, Palestine.
Course Title: Data and Business Process Modeling

See the course webpage and video lectures at:


1Jarrar © 2015
Business Process Management
Design and Re-engineering
Mustafa Jarrar: Lecture Notes on Business Process Design and Re-engineering,
University of Birzeit, Palestine, 2015
In collaboration with
Bilal Farraj
Mustafa Jarrar
Birzeit University, Palestine
2Jarrar © 2015
Download the slides from
Some content in this lecture are based on [2]
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Reading and practice
[1] Every material in these slides.
[2] What Lucy Taught Us: The Model Chapter
[3] Practice Session
Keywords: Data Engineering, Data Modeling, Conceptual Data Modeling, ORM, Object Role Modeling, Information Modeling, Schema
engineering, Business Rules, integrity constraints, Derivation rules, Logic, verbalization of business rules, rules
contradictions, rules implications, Business Process Engineering, Business Process Management, Business Process Modelling, Process
Mapping, Process identification, process re-engineering, process re-engineering, Process Optimization, Process execution.
‫هندسة‬‫البيانات‬،‫مخطط‬‫بيانات‬‫المفاهيمية‬، ‫النمذجة‬‫المفاهيمية‬‫للبيانات‬،‫هندسة‬‫العمليات‬، ‫إعادة‬‫هندسة‬‫العمليات‬‫اإلدارية‬
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Walter Geer: The Model
Business processes drive the basis of any organizations’
products and services. It can be seen as the way things get
In theory, process design ensure the consistency of
More commonly, the individuals involved must interpret,
define and follow the processes.
Inconsistencies, confusion, delays, miscues
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Walter Geer: The Model
Evidence: Individuals are unable to produce a meaningful
documentation to describer the actual workflow within and
between organizations’ departments.
To effectively use the model, begin with a vision to identify
the process goal.
Goal typically includes descriptive verbs such as: improve,
increase. reduce, or eliminate
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Walter Geer: The Eight Steps Model
Document current processes (modeling)
Evaluate the “As Is” condition
Realign duties and responsibilities
Improve interdepartmental communication
Clarify staff responsibilities
Take advantage of technology
Prepare for change
Institutionalize process improvement
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Business Process Management Lifecycle
Image Source:
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Challenges: Process Design and Re-engineering
We will present you a clear methodology that can be followed
step by step to improve a business process!
But we will present and discuss some factors to be taken into
This will help to improve you re-engineering skills
 Main challenges to accomplish to improve business process
design, would be (but not limited to):
 Process domain
 Process engagement
 Process interpretation
 Process monitoring and improvement
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Domain knowledge is Important
Understand the business process domain is important but is not an
easy task. Domain can be for instance:
 Banking
 Healthcare
 Telecommunication
 Public administrations
 Insurance
More likely, there are usually domains within a single domain itself.
 Banking (i.e., finance, accounting, loans)
 Healthcare (i.e., hospital, clinic, doctor, patient)
 Telecom (i.e., billing, infrastructure, OSS, BSS)
 Public administrations (i.e., health, education, several citizen services)
 Insurance (i.e., ship, car, house, life)
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Understanding Process Owners
• There are different levels of process owners within/across
• When process span across organizations, it become even
more challenging
• Owners can vary in any BPM activity depending on the
complexity of certain process, such as
– Board of directors
– Domain experts
– Business owners
– Managers
– Lawyers
– Customers
…and many more!
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Process Engagement
• One important thing to keep in mind while designing and re-
engineering a business process is to determine the people
and/or systems involved in process execution.
• This activity should be during the design and model phases of
BPM lifecycle.
• Example, potential roles engaged to course enrollment process
at Birzeit University are: Student, Instructor, Advisor, Academic
Department, Registration, Finance, Dean, Ritaj, Banks.
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Process Interpretation
• People who execute the process, usually tell their own
interpretation of how the process should be done.
• But in reality, there are several concerns:
 Interpretation usually different from one person to another,
department to another, organization to another,
 Execution might be different from the way it should be.
• You should be smart enough, and should pay attention to
process model accuracy.
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Process Improvement
• After design and modeling, comes to the phase of improvement.
• process improvement vary from domain to another, even within
same domain.
• No specific methodology to follow for this phase, and it depends on
the level of process complexity.
• Improvement can be iterative- through phases.
• Some recommendations for process improvement:
1. Gather process metrics
2. Define what to improve and which goals
3. Find out ways to achieve the improvement goal(s)
4. Monitor process execution
5. Understand the limits to organizational changes allowed.
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Use Case: Goods Import
Example is available in Signavio in the shared folder
“Examples – analytic elements”
Model name: Goods Import, Bilal – version 1
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Tips: Naming Convention
• Naming Processes is sub processes is important.
• Try to define and agree on the naming convention, between all
people who collaborate on your project.
• For example: lets agree on the following structure for all models
created for a BPM activity. What in brackets is replaceable.
{Brief_Name_of_Process}, {Editors} – version {#}
Example: Goods Shipment, Bilal – version 7
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Tips: Model Revision
Good to provide brief description of changes to business
process models when applying changes to model.
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Project II: Faculty Traveling Permission
Description: Faculty member who want to travel during semesters are required to
have a permission. Faculty member need to fill in a form and get it signed by the
department chair and the dean of the faculty. The form includes (a) some
information about the trip, destination, dates, and purpose; and (b) a plan on how
they will make up the the missed lectures. The form is then sent to the department
chair to decide whether this plan is acceptable, and send it to the dean who then
decides to give the permission or not. The dean may take the recommendations of
the dept. chair into account; and can refuse if the faculty member succeeded the
allowed number of absence days (9 teaching days per semester). After
acceptance/rejection of the form, the faculty member and the chair are notified, and
a copy of the decision is also sent to VP-academic.
As this process takes lots of time and efforts from faculty member and involved
departments. The university would like to automate the process, so that faculty
members can request it easily through Ritaj.
Task: Model the above business process using BPMN 2.0 on Signavio, and deliver
hard copy before, May 5th 2015 at 9AM, Please also save a soft copy on the shared
folder “Faculty Traveling Permission”.
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Project: Faculty Traveling Permission

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