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What is Quantum Cryptography?


The process of concealing or coding information so that only the intended recipient can read it is known as cryptography. Cryptography has been used to code messages for thousands of years and is still used in bank cards, computer passwords, and e-commerce.

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Table of Content:

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What is meant by Quantum Cryptography?

The process of encrypting data or converting plain text into scrambled text that can only be read by someone with the appropriate “key” is known as cryptography. By extension, quantum cryptography simply employs quantum mechanics principles to encrypt and transmit data in an unhackable manner.

While the definition appears straightforward, the complexity lies in the quantum mechanics principles that underpin quantum cryptography, which include:

QKD enables two parties to generate and share a key that is then used to encrypt and decrypt messages. QKD refers to the method of distributing the key rather than the key itself or the messages it enables users to send.

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QKD’s History

QKD's History

In the 1970s, Columbia University’s Stephen Wiesner proposed quantum conjugate coding, which was the first proposal of quantum cryptography. Wiesner’s paper appeared in 1983. Years later, Charles H. Bennett developed the concept of secure communication based on Wiesner’s work. Bennett also invented BB84, the first quantum cryptography protocol to use nonorthogonal states. Furthermore, Artur Ekert discovered another method to QKD based on quantum entanglement in 1990.

What is the distinction between post-quantum and quantum cryptography?

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How does Quantum Cryptography Work?

This protocol is capable of detecting eavesdropping and determining how much data was potentially intercepted.

If an eavesdropper gains access to a previously trusted node and modifies something, the other parties will be notified.

Here are some examples of QKD protocols:

Examples of QKD protocols:

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Difficulties in Quantum Cryptography

Difficulties in QKD

The three major challenges to QKD are:

For the time being, establishing an ideal infrastructure for QKD is difficult. Although QKD is completely secure in theory, flaws in tools such as single photon detectors create numerous security vulnerabilities in practice. It is critical to think about security analysis.

One of the most significant challenges of QKD is that it relies on a pre-existing classically authenticated communication channel. This means that at least one of the participants has already exchanged a symmetric key, resulting in an adequate level of security. Another advanced encryption standard can be used to secure a system without using QKD. However, as the use of quantum computers increases, so does the possibility of an attacker exploiting quantum computing’s ability to crack existing encryption methods, making QKD more relevant.

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Career Transition


New technology is being developed all the time to improve high data rates and increase the overall effective distance of QKD. With new networks and companies offering commercial QKD systems, QKD is becoming more widely used in commercial settings.

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