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What is JDBC? An Introduction

What does JDBC in java stand for? What is JDBC? We will be answering all your questions regarding JDBC in our article further.

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What is JDBC?

JDBC, short for Java Database Connectivity, is a Java API that enables Java programs to interact with databases. It defines a common interface for Java programs to utilize when interacting with databases, regardless of the underlying database management system (DBMS).

Java programs can use JDBC to execute SQL queries, receive result sets from the database, and conduct other database-related actions including inserting, updating, and deleting entries.

JDBC is a set of classes and interfaces that define a standard method of connecting with a database. JDBC’s primary classes and interfaces are Driver, Connection, Statement, PreparedStatement, CallableStatement, ResultSet, and SQLException.

The Driver class is in charge of establishing a connection to the database and constructing a Connection object. The Connection object is used to construct Statement or PreparedStatement objects, which are then used to execute SQL commands. The ResultSet object contains the query results.

JDBC is a type-safe, efficient, and portable database access method. It removes the need to build specialized code for each database management system, as well as reduces the amount of code that must be written and maintained.

Furthermore, JDBC provides a uniform API for accessing databases, which simplifies the development and maintenance of Java programs that interface with databases.

JDBC Connection

What is JDBC Connection?

JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) is a Java API that allows Java programs to connect to relational databases. It includes classes and interfaces for connecting to a database, running SQL commands, and processing the results. JDBC enables Java programs to communicate with a wide range of databases, regardless of their underlying architecture.

Learn more through our Java Certification Training Course.

What is JDBC Driver?

What is JDBC Driver?

JDBC Driver is a necessary component that allows Java programs to communicate with databases. It provides a standardized interface for connecting to databases, running SQL queries, and processing the results. A JDBC Driver functions as a link between a Java program and a database, transforming the application’s Java API calls into the database-specific calls needed to access the data.

Types of JDBC Drivers

The driver that acts as a bridge between the Java application and the database is of four types. They are as follows:

JDBC-ODBC Bridge Driver

This driver connects to the database via the ODBC driver. It is the most fundamental sort of JDBC driver, and it is commonly used for testing and prototyping.

Native-API/Partially Java Driver

This driver uses a library written in the same language as the database to transform JDBC calls into database-specific calls. It outperforms the JDBC-ODBC Bridge driver but is restricted to a single database.

Network Protocol Driver (Middleware Driver)

This driver interfaces with the database using a database-independent network protocol that is subsequently converted into database-specific calls. This driver has the benefit of being able to access numerous databases, but it needs the installation of a middleware component.

Pure Java Driver

This driver is fully written in Java and connects with the database directly via a database-specific interface. It has the best performance and is the recommended driver for usage in production.


The application programming interfaces (APIs) ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) and JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) are both used to connect to databases. There are, however, some significant distinctions between the two:

Full-Form Open Database Connectivity. Java Database Connectivity.
Language support ODBC is primarily used for C/C++ applications. JDBC is specifically designed for Java applications.
API design ODBC uses a low-level API with a lot of options and functions. JDBC provides a higher-level API that is easier to use.
Performance ODBC can be faster than JDBC for some applications. JDBC is typically faster for Java applications due to its direct integration with the Java language.
Portability Less Portable. More Portable.

JDBC Steps

The following are the steps required in connecting to a database using JDBC (Java Database Connectivity). These are the fundamental steps for connecting to a database and performing CRUD tasks with JDBC.

Load the JDBC driver

Before a Java program can connect to a database, it must first load the suitable JDBC driver. JDBC drivers are classified into four types: JDBC-ODBC bridge driver, Native-API driver, and Network Protocol driver, and Thin driver. The driver you require is determined by the database to which you are connected and your requirements.

Establish a connection

Once the JDBC driver is loaded, you can connect to the database by calling the DriverManager.getConnection() function and inputting the database’s URL and credentials.

Build a statement

Once a connection has been established, you may create a statement object to run SQL instructions. A statement might be a basic SQL query or a series of SQL instructions.

Execute the SQL statement

Depending on the kind of SQL command, you may execute the statement by invoking the executeQuery(), executeUpdate(), or execute() methods. ExecuteQuery() is used for SELECT statements, executeUpdate() is used for INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and other data manipulation operations, and execute() is used for any form of SQL command.

Process the result

If the SQL command is a SELECT statement, the result set returned by the executeQuery() function may be processed using a ResultSet object. To obtain data from the result set, you may use methods such as next(), getInt(), getString(), and so on.

Close the connection

When you’re through working with the database, call the terminate() function on the connection object to close the connection.

Have a look at our Java Programming Tutorial.

JDBC Data Types

Data types in JDBC are divided into two categories:

Java data types: These are the data types that the Java programming language supports. Java data types contain both primitive (such as int, float, and double) and non-primitive data types (such as String, Date, etc.).

Database data types: These are the data types that the database to which you are connected supports. SQL data types (such as INT, VARCHAR, DATE, and so on) and NoSQL data types are examples of database data types (such as BSON, JSON, etc.).

When working with JDBC, you must ensure that the data types in your Java code match the data types in the database. If you have an int in your Java code, you must use an INT in the database. If your Java code contains a String, then you must use a VARCHAR in the database.

Some of the most widely used data types are grouped in the form of a table, as illustrated below.

Java Data Types SQL Data Types
java.lang.string VARCHAR
java.math.BigDecimal NUMERIC
java.sql.Timestamp TIMESTAMP
java.sql.Ref REF
java.sql.Clob CLOB

JDBC Architecture

The JDBC design allows the Java program to interface with the database in a consistent manner, independent of the database type. To execute the request, the Java program invokes methods in the JDBC API, which in turn calls methods in the JDBC driver. Through the JDBC API, the JDBC driver connects with the database and delivers the result to the Java application.

The layered architecture design provides a high degree of abstraction, allowing developers to create Java programs that interface with many databases using a single, standard API.

The JDBC architecture (Java Database Connectivity) is made up of numerous components that work together to allow Java programs to interface with databases. The following are the components of the JDBC architecture:

Java Application

The client-side component that interacts with the database is the Java application. The Java program generates and delivers JDBC queries to the database.


This component provides a collection of Java classes and interfaces for communicating with databases. The JDBC API defines a collection of methods for connecting to databases, running SQL commands, and analyzing results.

JDBC Driver Manager

This component maintains a list of available JDBC drivers and routes requests to the correct driver. The Driver Manager is in charge of loading the JDBC driver, connecting to the database, and generating statements and result sets.

JDBC Driver

This is the component that implements the JDBC API at a low level for a certain database. The JDBC driver connects with the database directly and converts JDBC queries into database-specific instructions. JDBC drivers are classified into four types: JDBC-ODBC bridge drivers, Native-API drivers, Network Protocol drivers, and Thin drivers.


The database is the component that stores and retrieves data. The database can be either a SQL database (such as MySQL or Oracle) or a NoSQL database (such as MongoDB, Cassandra, etc.).

Preparing for interviews? Take help from our Top 100+ Java Interview Questions and Answers.


JDBC is commonly used in Java programs for database access, and it provides a versatile and efficient manner of dealing with databases. JDBC is a vital tool for accessing databases and saving, retrieving, and modifying data, whether you’re developing a basic application or a huge business system.

We will be back with more knowledgeable content. Till then keep learning and if you still have any doubts you can easily reach us through our Community page! All your queries will be answered here.

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